LECTURE OUTLINE GEOL 335.3, Term 2

Igor Morozov

Geology 142; 966-5731

- An Introduction to Applied and Environmental Geophysics, 2-nd ed, 2011, J. M. Reynolds, John Willey & Sons
**Recommended**: Introduction to Seismology, 2-nd ed., 2009, Shearer, P. M., Cambridge University Press.**Recommended**: Applied Geophysics, 1990, Second Edition, W. M. Telford, L. P. Geldart, R. E. Sheriff. Cambridge University Press.

4 lectures

- Objectives and outline of the program
- Historical background of the different geophysical techniques
- Significance and scope of the application of the specific geophysical methods
- Review of the relevant reference literature and prominent scientific journals

- Key common concepts: Vectors, fields; Time and spatial series, Z- and Fourier transforms, Aliasing, Dynamic range (lecture)
- Convolution, Cross- and Autocorrelation, filtering (lecture)
- Signal and noise

17 or 18 lectures

Wavefronts and rays

- Travel times
- Reflected, refracted, transmitted, and head waves
- Huygens' principle, Diffraction
- Fermat principle
- Snell's law
- Geometrical spreading

- Mechanical properties of rocks, strain and stress, laboratory and
*in situ*stress-strain relationships - Importance to engineering applications, effects of lithology, density, porosity, temperature, and depths of burial
- Elastic wave theory - scalar and full wave equations, general aspects of wave propagation (lecture)
- Body waves, P and S waves
- Surface waves (lecture): Rayleigh, Love, Stonely - coherent noise or tools for imaging shallow subsurface
- Anisotropy and effects on wave propagation
- Waves in layered media

- Green's functions and Moment tensor
- Radiation patterns
- Source spectra
- Stress drop
- Earthquake magnitudes

- Onshore techniques- principles, application, advantages and disadvantages, economic and environmental issues
- Marine techniques- principles and applications
- Source requirements and design considerations
- Vibration principles
- Digital recording systems, Analog-to-Digital signal converters
- Signal detectors
- Design of target-oriented signal detection
- Recording, data storage and processing systems

- Physical Principles
- Survey procedures, onshore/marine, personnel, legal considerations
- Applications: exploration, engineering, environment and crustal environments
- Target related field survey design methods
- Interpretation techniques
- Case studies

- Physical principles
- Field operation geometries, 2D/3D, onshore/marine
- Noise types, noise-recognition, signal-noise time and spatial relationships
- Design of signal detection systems and special problem oriented recording systems
- Velocity extraction methods, data dependent borehole techniques
- Corrections
- Data processing techniques (lecture): onshore/marine, spectral analysis, band limited/inverse filtering, correlation, velocity analysis, stacking
- Inversion and migration
- Data display techniques
- Interpretation procedures, correlation of seismic arrivals to geology, borehole geology, wireline data
- Synthetic seismograms modelling
- Practical examples: seismic images of faults, subsurface reefs, synclines-anticlines, seismic stratigraphic signatures, high resolution near surface buried channels and lithologic discontinuities
- Subsurface target definition, horizontal and vertical resolutions, imaging limitations
- Pitfalls in seismic interpretation

2 lectures

- High frequency electrical properties of rocks, EM wave propagation in ground, penetration, frequency/penetration. limitations
- Field operations, instrumentation
- Data handling and processing
- Engineering applications
- Case histories.